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Thermodynamic Estimation of Transformer Fault Severity

Category: Knowledge

Authors:  F. Jakob and J.J. Dukarm
Published in Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions
vol.30, no.4, pp.1941-1948, Aug. 2015
doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2015.2415767

Conventional practice for transformer dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is to use concentrations of several fault gases, with or without total dissolved combustible gas, for evaluating apparent fault severity. We suggest a simpler approach based on the normalized energy intensity (NEI), a quantity related directly to fault energy dissipated within the transformer. DGA fault severity scoring based on NEI is shown to be sensitive to all IEC fault types and to be more responsive to shifts in the relative concentrations of the fault gases than scoring based on fault gas concentrations. Instead of eight or more gas concentration limits, NEI scoring requires only two or three limits that can be empirically derived to suit local requirements for any population of mineral-oil-filled power transformers.

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